Sun and Moon sacred power
Among the most ancient cults in the history of mankind is the worship of the Sun and Moon. Although the cult of the stars, endowing nature and human with fertility, cleansing force is international, it received powerful development in ancient Egypt, Assyria, Urartu in all forms and kinds of variations of solar and lunar characters. The broadest dissemination of amulets in a realistic image of the Sun and Moon were widespread in Egypt, in particular, crescent – a sign of Isis – served as an amulet for women and children.
To Moon Amulet belongs early medieval Scandinavian and Russian “lunnitsa” – covered with beading and gold, silver crescent pendants, included in the necklace; crescents horns up or down, are often found in ancient Israel and Iran.
The moon, as well as a crescent – the symbol of the transformations occurring in the world, in many ancient civilizations represented the female deities. The passive principle of creation was complemented by an active male role – the sun. Crescent earrings – popular archetype since II millennial BC. in almost all peoples. The arc of the crescent opened up is feminine, dropped down – the cup of abundance, prosperity.
The solar disc is found in countless round, disk-shaped or spherical amulets (rings, earrings, necklaces, bracelets). Chinese Bi disk amulet (pi), the flat round of jade and turquoise with a hole in the middle, which should be touched by the hand in difficult situations, goes back to the Neolithic period.
Disk imaging Solomon’s seal (David’s six-pointed star, or Shield of David) had circulated far beyond the range of Judaism, is a later variation of the solar theme. One of the most ancient symbols of the sun was a cross – mark, known even in the V millennium BC. e. in different regions of the globe. The earliest cross-shaped amulet – a stone figure of a man with his feet pushed together, arms out with a cross pendant around his neck, found in Cyprus, dates back to the III millennium BC. e.
In addition to man-made crosses-amulets, for centuries was widely used mineral chiastolite, bearing the sign of the cross. To the more recent cross-shaped amulets belongs the ancient Egyptian cross – “ankh”, where the top vertical bar replaces the loop; magic knot protects against diseases, insanity, sterility. Cross – “tau” in the form of the letter “T”, is common in ancient Egypt, the Middle East and then inherited by the Romans – an amulet from skin diseases, snake bites, poison and wounds.
Sometimes in this series include the “Hammer of Thor”, the god of thunder, – perhaps the most common Viking amulet. No less ancient solar symbol – spiral. Its image had the function of warding in Scandinavians, Celtic habitat (three spirals emanating from a single point – the ethnic character of the Celts), the peoples of the Mediterranean (anthropomorphic stylized triple helix is the ancient emblem of Sicily – Trinacria, or “three-legged Medusa” with three going from head bent legs; throughout Asia (China, in particular, the spiral was embodied in the traditional yin-yang symbol) in Indian cultures of America.
In the same connection it is necessary to mention apotrope of ammonite – spiral twisted shells of mollusks fossil, called in many cultures “snake stones” (ammonite sometimes was complemented by a carved snake head). Especially popular were ammonites in northern Europe, in England, they are associated with the legend of St. Hilda, who turned snakes into stones. Since immemorial times, they are used as amulets against snake bites, bleeding, gunshot wounds and nightmares
Another solar symbol – the swastika. Starting with the III millennium BC, it marked the movement of the sun and protected from the insidious influences. As a solar sign swastika was perceived as the symbol of life and light, the wheel of life. Sometimes it is understood as a symbol of the four fundamental forces, the four corners of the world, the elements, the seasons and served as a sign of alchemic transmutation of element ideas.
Swastika as an amulet was common in Nepal, China, Japan, India, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Persia, Central Asian states, the ancient Greeks, Etruscans, Romans, Germans, Celts, Scandinavians, Icelanders, and in the New World – Inca, Mayan and Navajo. In XX century. swastika was adopted by Nazi Germany (in their interpretation, it was associated with the revival of the nation), which ultimately compromised the oldest amulet in many regions putting it out of use. Swastika, designed to protect from evil, has become in the eyes of millions its personification.
One of the incarnation of the sun, and – increasingly – the cosmos, embodied wheel, close to the swastika. A good example of this iconic symbol – three gold bracelets, amulets in the form of openwork wheels fixed to chains (England, I century), as well as an amulet-wheel dharma-Shakra in Buddhist culture.
A more recent symbol is a solar boat, as embodying the movement of the sun. Ships amulets were known in ancient Greece, coins-amulets with the image of a ship dating back to the beginning of a new era – in Scandinavia. The role of a solar apotrope played kolts, earrings and other jewelry with star-like rays, common in Russia and Scandinavia. Often the sun-moon symbols reproduced together; such images is the key to a happy marriage (for example, the Alans wore rings with rays and sickle-shaped protrusions – “horns”).
images – livemaster.ru